Home   Tell-A-Friend    Discussion Board   Contact Us

Civil Engineer Sponsored by Webinfolist.com

Educational and Industrial Resources

Treasure of Civil Engineering Resources Treasure of Civil Engineering Resources

Course materials, Books, Computer software, Quiz,  Conferences, Journals, Research theses, Jobs, Products, Services etc.

                          Physical properties of Ordinary Portland Cement

Cement should be tested for its following properties

1. Fineness

Fineness, or particle size of portland cement affects rate of hydration, which is responsible for the rate of strength gain.  The smaller the particle size, the greater the surface area-to-volume ratio, which means more area available for water-cement reaction per unit volume.  Approximately 95% of cement particles are smaller than 45 micron with the average particle size  about 15 micron. Fineness is measured in terms of surface area per unit mass. Fineness can be tested by Wagner turbidimeter test, Blaine Air-permeability test, 45-micrometer sieve and electronic particle size analyzer.

2. Soundness

Soundness refers to the ability of a hardened cement paste to retain its volume after setting. Lack of soundness is observed in the cement samples containing excessive amounts of hardburnt free lime or magnesia. Autoclave expansion test is used to determine soundness of cement.

3. Consistency

Consistency of a cement paste refers to its ability to flow. Normal consistency pastes are required to be prepared for testing cement specimens. A paste is said to have a normal consistency when the plunger of Vicat apparatus penetrates it by 101 mm. the corresponding water-cement ratio is reported.

Featured Links


A collection of quiz in different areas of civil engineering

CE HorizonNew

Online Civil Engineering Journal and Magazine

Profile of Civil EngineersNew

Get to know about distinguished civil engineers



4. Setting Time

Initial setting time is the time that elapsed from the instance of adding water untill the pastes ceases to  behave as fluid or plastic. Whereas final setting time referred to the time required for the cement paste to reach certain state of hardness to sustain  some load. Setting time is tested by Vicat apparatus or Gillmore needle.

5. Compressive Strength

Compressive strength of cement is tested by 50 mm mortar cubes made by using standard sand and cured  in a prescribed way. the cubes are tested under a compression testing machine. The strength of cement varies with time, therefore in general it is reported as 3 day, 7 day or 28 day strength. 

6. Heat of hydration

The heat generated during the reaction of cement and water is known as heat of hydration. The factors affecting heat of hydration are C3A, C2S, water-cement ration, fineness of cement and curing temperature. Conduction calorimeter is used to test heat of hydration.

7. Loss on Ignition

A cement sample of known weight is heated between 900 - 1000C (1650 - 1830F) until a constant weight is obtained.  The weight loss of the sample due to heating is then determined.  A high loss on ignition (more than 3%) indicates  prehydration and carbonation, which may be due to  inappropriate storage or adulteration.

8. Specific gravity (relative density)

Specific gravity is generally required in mix proportioning for concrete. The particle density (measured by excluding the air between particles) of OPC is found to be in the range of 3.1 to 3.25 Megagram per cubic meter. The relative density of OPC is assumed as 3.15. The density of cement is determined by Le Chatelier apparatus.

9. Bulk Density

The bulk density can be determined by dividing the mass of cement particles and air between particles by the volume of cement sample. Bulk density of OPC ranges from 830 kg/cu.m to 1650 kg/cu.m. This test can be done with the help of two beakers having same amount of cement. The cement in one beaker is slightly vibrated  which shows a decrease in the volume.

Problem SolverNew

A collection of illustrated solved examples for civil engineers.

Moment Distribution CalculatorNew

Easy to use calculator for solving  Indeterminate beams with different load

Overhanging Beam CalculatorNew

Bending Moment & Shear Force Calculation for Overhanging beam with different loads

Fixed Beam Calculator

Shear force and bending moment calculations for different loading cases of Fixed beam

RC Beam CalculatorNew

Calculate the strength of reinforced concrete beams




If you don't find the required information please tell us We are updating the website regularly.

Join the mailing list to get informed about new products or links


Applied Mechanics 

Structural Analysis 

Design of Structures

Construction Materials

Engineering Graphics

Disaster Management



Land Surveying


Environmental Engineering

Irrigation Engineering

Offshore Engineering

Construction Management 

Quantity Surveying

Construction Disputes

Construction Technology

Construction Equipments

Research Papers

Journals & Magazines

Construction Companies


Professional Societies

Computer Software 


Photo Album



Join us

Job Search

Book Store


Colleges & Universities

Learning Support

Last updated on Thursday January 31, 2013