Surface irrigation system depends on simple gravity flow of water over and across the land in order to wet it and to infiltrate into the soil. The surface irrigation system has four component: (1) water supply; (2) water conveyance or delivery; (3) water use; and (4) drainage. Most surface irrigation systems derive their water supplies from canal systems. Sometimes the water is pumped directly from groundwater.
Surface irrigation methods can be divided into furrow, borderstrip, basin or uncontrolled irrigation.
Surface irrigation system requires a number of structures which control and manage the flow and its energy. These structures should be able to do the following functions;
(1) turning the flow to a field on and off;
(2) conveying and distributing the flow among fields;
(3) water measurement, sediment and debris removal, water level stabilization;
(4) distribution of water onto the field
Careful management is required for spreading water uniformly over a field because the soil is quite porous, and the flow rate of water is continually reduced as it spreads.
Surface irrigation is not well-suited for soils with high infiltration rates (usually the sandy and coarse-textured soils). Whereas it gives better results for soils with moderate to low infiltration rates (loams and other fine-textured soils).
Surface irrigation also requires that fields should have a uniform grade in the direction of water flow to obtain best results. For unplanted field the slope should not be more than 3%.
Other irrigation methods are given below
Bending Moment Calculator
Calculate bending moment & shear force for simply supported beam
Moment of Inertia Calculator
Calculate moment of inertia of plane sections e.g. channel, angle, tee etc.
Reinforced Concrete Calculator
Calculate the strength of Reinforced concrete beam
Moment Distribution Calculator
Solving indeterminate beams
Deflection & Slope Calculator
Calculate deflection and slope of simply supported beam for many load cases
Fixed Beam Calculator
Calculation tool for beanding moment and shear force for Fixed Beam for many load cases
BM & SF Calculator for Cantilever
Calculate SF & BM for Cantilever
Deflection & Slope Calculator for Cantilever
For many load cases of Cantilever
Overhanging beam calculator
For SF & BM of many load cases of overhanging beam
Civil Engineering Quiz
Test your knowledge on different topics of Civil Engineering
Research Papers, Thesis and Dissertation
List of skyscrapers of the world
Containing Tall buildings worldwide
Containing List of civil engineering conferences, seminar and workshops
Profile of Civil Engineers
Get to know about distinguished Civil Engineers
Worldwide Civil Engineers Professional Societies
Keep visiting for getting updated or Join our mailing list
PleaseTell your Friends about us if you find our website useful